Wild Border Watersheds


A database of information resources on the transboundary region’s ecology, cultures and industrial proposals. Use the search tools below to find the resources you are looking for.

Photo Credit: Mark Connor

Acid Mine Drainage Resources

Study to Identify BATEA for the Management and Control of Effluent Quality from Mines: MEND Report 3.50.1

A Hatch report commissioned by the Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) Program to complete a study to identify best available technologies economically achievable (BATEA) to manage and control effluent from metal, diamond and coal mines in Canada.

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Acid Rock Drainage and Water Quality: Potential Environmental Health Impacts in Alaska

A teleconference presentation, hosted by The Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE). Environmental geochemist Kendra Zamzow, PhD, discussed how acid mine drainage affects water chemistry and environmental health. Acid rock drainage is one of the major sources of toxic metals associated with mining. When waste rock excavated from the mine is exposed to air and water, it chemically reacts to form sulfuric acid, essentially dissolving the surface of the rock. Metals leach out from the rock and may contaminate both surface and ground water. Metal leaching of some elements like arsenic and selenium can also occur without acid. Direct exposure to these metals can be harmful to fish and people, and indirectly metal reactions can lead to changes in water quality that affect aquatic habitat.

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Proposed KSM Project: Impacts

A SkeenaWild video on the Kerr Sulphurets Mitchell (KSM) mine proposed by Seabridge Gold Inc. The proposed mine would release metals into the Unuk watershed that would exceed levels known to have serious impacts on salmon.

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Sub-lethal metal toxicity concerns for Unuk watershed salmonids from Seabridge Gold’s proposed KSM mine

A SkeenaWild report on the proposed KSM project’s predicted concentrations for 7 heavy metals to be released during ore-extraction operations into the salmon-bearing Sulphurets Creek and Unuk River, including relevant examples of the effect of concentrations known to adversely affect salmonids.

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Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND)

Acidic drainage is the largest environmental liability facing the Canadian and international mining industry. Since 1989, the Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) program has worked to develop technologies to prevent and control acidic drainage. The program is directed by a multi-stakeholder committee, with members from the mining industry, federal and provincial governments, and non-government organizations.

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Sub-lethal Metal Toxicity Effects on Salmonids: A Review

A SkeenaWild report on heavy metals and the lowest concentrations of metals reported to cause sub-lethal effects on salmonids. Heavy metals are common pollutants of aquatic systems, often associated with human activities such as hard-rock mining. Fish are vulnerable to metals because of sensitive organs that are continuously in contact with water, and because metals are highly soluble in water. 

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US Copper Porphyry Mines

An Earthworks report compiling the record of pipeline, seepage control and tailings impoundment failures at operating copper porphyry mines in the U.S., and documenting associated water quality impacts.

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Acid Mine Drainage: Mining and Water Pollution Problems in BC

A MiningWatch Canada report that identifies Acid Mine Drainage as the biggest environmental threat from mining in British Columbia.

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Predicting Water Quality Problems At Hard Rock Mines: A Failure of Science, Oversight, and Good Practice

An Earthworks white paper summarizing and analyzing the groundbreaking studies by Ann Maest, PhD, and Jim Kuipers, P.E.: Comparison of Predicted and Actual Water Quality at Hardrock Mines: the reliability of predictions in Environmental Impact Statements, and; Predicting Water Quality at Hardrock Mines: Methods and Models, Uncertainties, and State-of-the-Art

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Two Million Tonnes a Day - A Mine Waste Primer

A MiningWatch Canada report examining the amount of toxic waste generated by mining in Canada. 

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Polluting the Future: How mining companies are polluting our nation’s waters in perpetuity

An Earthworks report that shows, for the first time, the staggering amount of U.S. water supplies that are perpetually polluted by mining. 

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Acid Mine Drainage and Effects on Fish Health and Ecology

A U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage Field Office, report on acid mine drainage and the substantial risks that AMD poses to fisheries. 

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